Screened-Out Meta-Analyses for Practices

We have identified thousands of programs and practices in our literature reviews, but not every intervention makes it onto CrimeSolutions with a rating.

We use rigorous research to inform you about what works in criminal justice, juvenile justice and crime victim services. We set a high bar for the scientific quality of the evidence used to assign ratings. Much of the evidence that we identify is screened out before going to review. See Why Meta-analyses Are Screened Out.

Following is a list of meta-analyses that were screened out during the initial review. 

Download data (xlsx).

Screened-Out Meta Analyses
Reference Primary Topic Practice Topic
Akhtar, Sadaf and Jane Barlow. 2018. "Forgiveness Therapy for the Promotion of Mental Well-Being: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 19(1):107-22. Victims & Victimization Forgiveness Therapy
Alford, Aaron A. and James Derzon. 2012. "Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of School-Based Programs to Reduce Multiple Violent and Antisocial Behavioral Outcomes." In S. R. Jimerson, A. B. Nickerson, M. J. Mayer, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of School Violence and School Safety: International Research and Practice, p. 593-606. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. Juvenile Justice School-Based Programs to Reduce Violent and Antisocial Behavior
Andrew, Don A., and Craig Dowden. 2005. "Managing Correctional Treatment for Reduced Recidivism: A Meta-Analytic Review of Programme Integrity." Legal and Criminological Psychology 10:173-87. Corrections Correctional Treatment (Program Integrity)
Arroyo, Karla, Brad Lundahl, Rob Butters, Mindy Vanderloo, and David S. Wood. 2017. "Short-Term Interventions for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 18(2):155-171. Victims & Victimization Short-Term Interventions for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence
Ashman, Lorraine, and Lorna Duggan. 2004. “Interventions for Learning Disabled Sex Offenders." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2004:3. Corrections Treatment for Learning Disabled Sex Offenders
Bao, Yan-ping, Zhi-min Liu, David H. Epstein, Cun Du, Jie Shi, and Lin Lu. 2009. "A Meta-Analysis of Retention in Methadone Maintenance by Dose and Dosing Strategy." The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 35(1):28-33. Drug & Substance Abuse Methadone Maintenance
Bergen, Gwen, Adesola Pitan, Shuli Qu, Ruth A. Shults, Sajal K. Chattopadhyay, Randy W. Elder, David A. Sleet, et al. 2014. "Publicized Sobriety Checkpoint Programs: A Community Guide Systematic Review." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 46(5):529-39. Law Enforcement Sobriety Checkpoints
Bisson, J., and Martin Andrew. 2005. "Psychological Treatment of Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)." Cochrane Database of Systematic Review 2007, Issue 3, Art. No.: CD003388. Victims & Victimization Psychological Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Bøg, Martin, Trine Filges, Lars Brännström, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen, and Maja Kärrman Fredriksson. 2017. "12-Step Programs for Reducing Illicit Drug Use." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2017:13. Drug & Substance Abuse 12-Step Programs for Reducing Illicit Drug Use
Brewer, Devon D., Richard F. Catalano, Kevin Haggerty, Randy R. Gainey, and Charles B. Fleming. 1998. "A Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Continued Drug Use During and After Treatment for Opiate Addiction." Addiction 93:73-92. Drug & Substance Abuse Predictors of Continued Drug Use During and After Treatment for Opiate Addiction
Burke, Brian L., Christopher W. Dunn, David C. Atkins, and Jerry S. Phelps. 2004. "The Emerging Evidence Base for Motivational Interviewing: A Meta-Analytic and Qualitative Inquiry." Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 18(4):309-22. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing
Burke, Brian L., Hal Arkowitz, and Marisa Menchola. 2003. "The Efficacy of Motivational Interviewing: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 71:843-61. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing
Campbell, Mary Ann, Sheila French, and Paul Gendreau. 2009. "The Prediction of Violence in Adult Offenders: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Instruments and Methods of Assessment." Criminal Justice and Behavior 36(6):567-90. Corrections Violence Risk Assessment Tools
Carey, Kate B., Lori A.J. Scott-Sheldon, Michael P. Carey, and Kelly S. DeMartini. 2007. "Individual-Level Interventions to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Meta-Analytic Review." Addictive Behaviors 32(11):2469-94. Drug & Substance Abuse Individual-Level Interventions for College Student Drinking
Casillas, Katherine L., Angèle Fauchier, Bridget T. Derkash, and Edward F. Garrido. 2016. "Implementation of Evidence-Based Home Visiting Programs Aimed at Reducing Child Maltreatment: A Meta-Analytic Review." Child Abuse & Neglect 53:64–80. Victims & Victimization Home Visiting Programs Aimed at Reducing Child Maltreatment
Chalamandaris, Alexandros-Georgios, and Danielle Piette. 2015. "School-Based Anti-Bullying Interventions: Systematic Review of the Methodology to Assess Their Effectiveness." Aggression and Violent Behavior 24:131-74. Juvenile Justice School-Based Anti-Bullying Interventions
Chard, Kathleen M. 1995. A Meta-Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment Outcome Studies of Sexually Victimized Women. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bloomington, Indiana: University of Indiana. Victims & Victimization Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment for Sexually Victimized Women
Chen, Xi Jing, Helen Leith, Leif Edvard Aarø, Terje Manger, and Christian Gold. 2016. "Music Therapy for Improving Mental Health Problems of Offenders in Correctional Settings: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Journal of Experimental Criminology 12:209-28. Corrections Music Therapy in Correctional Settings
Cooke, Barbara J., and David P. Farrington. 2016. "The Effectiveness of Dog-Training Programs in Prison: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature." The Prison Journal:1-23 Corrections Dog Training Programs in Prison
Cushing, Christopher C., Chad D. Jensen, Mary B. Miller, and Thad R. Leffingwell. 2014. "Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing for Adolescent Health Behavior: Efficacy Beyond Substance Use." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 82(6):1212. Juvenile Justice Motivational Interviewing for Adolescent Health
Davidson, Paul R., and Kevin C.H. Parker. 2001. "Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): A Meta-Analysis." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 69(2):305-16. Victims & Victimization Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
De Swart, J. J. W., H. Van den Broek, G. J. J. M. Stams, J. J. Asscher, P. H. Van der Laan, G. A. Holsbrink-Engels, and G. H. P. Van der Helm. 2012. "The Effectiveness o f Institutional Youth Care Over the Past Three Decades: A Meta-Analysis." Children and Youth Services Review 34(9):1818-24. Juvenile Justice Institutional Youth Care
Distler, Michael. 2011. Less Debate, More Analysis: A Meta-Analysis of Literature on Broken Windows Policing. Ph.D. Dissertation. College Park, Maryland: University of Maryland. Law Enforcement Broken Windows Policing
Dowden, Craig, and Donald A. Andrews. 2000. "Effective Correctional Treatment and Violent Reoffending: A Meta-Analysis." Canadian Journal of Criminology 42:449. Corrections Correctional Treatment for Violent Reoffending
Dowden, Craig and Don A. Andrews. 2004. "The Importance of Staff Practice in Delivering Effective Correctional Treatment: A Meta-Analytic Review of Core Correctional Practice." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48:203-214. Corrections Staff Practice in Delivering Effective Correctional Treatment
Driskell, James E. 2012. "Effectiveness of Deception Detection Training: A Meta-Analysis." Psychology, Crime & Law 18:713-31. Law Enforcement Deception Detection Training
DuBois, David L., Bruce E. Holloway, Jeffrey C. Valentine, and Harris Cooper. 2002. "Effectiveness of Mentoring Programs for Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review." American Journal of Community Psychology 30(2):157-97. Juvenile Justice Mentoring
Dunn, Chris, Lisa Deroo, and Frederick P. Rivara. 2001. "The Use of Brief Interventions Adapted from Motivational Interviewing Across Behavioral Domains: A Systematic Review." Addiction 96(12):1725-42. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing
Durlak, Joseph A., and Anne M. Wells. 1998. "Evaluation of Indicated Preventive Intervention (Secondary Prevention) Mental Health Programs for Children and Adolescents." American Journal of Community Psychology 26:775-802. Juvenile Justice Indicated Preventive Intervention Mental Health Programs for Children and Adolescents
Eby, Lillian T., Tammy D. Allen, Sarah C. Evans, Thomas Ng, and David L. DuBois. 2008. "Does Mentoring Matter? A Multi-Disciplinary Meta-Analysis Comparing Mentored and Non-Mentored Individuals." Journal of Vocational Behavior 72:254-67. Juvenile Justice Mentoring
Erke, Alena. 2009. "Red Light for Red-Light Cameras?: A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Red-Light Cameras on Crashes." Accident Analysis & Prevention 41(5):897-905. Law Enforcement Red Light Cameras
Farahmand, Farahnaz K., Kathryn E. Grant, Antonio J. Polo, and Sophia N. Duffy. 2011. "School‐Based Mental Health and Behavioral Programs for Low‐Income, Urban Youth: A Systematic and Meta‐Analytic Review." Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 18(4):372-90. Juvenile Justice School-Based Mental Health and Behavioral Programs for Low-Income Urban Youth
Farrington, David P., and Brandon C. Welsh. 2005. "Randomized Experiments in Criminology: What Have We Learned in the Last Two Decades?" Journal of Experimental Criminology 1(1):9-38. Crine Prevention Randomized Experiments in Criminology
Ferguson, Christopher J., Claudia San Miguel, John C. Kilburn, and Patricia Sanchez. 2007. "The Effectiveness of School-Based Anti-Bullying Programs: A Meta-Analytic Review." Criminal Justice Review 32(4):401-14. Juvenile Justice School-Based Anti-Bullying Programs
Ferguson, Christopher John. 2007. "The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: A Meta-Analytic Review of Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games." Psychiatric Quarterly 78(4):309-16. Juvenile Justice Effects of Violent Video Games
Fisak Jr., Brian J., Dan Richard, and Angela Mann. 2011. "The Prevention of Child and Adolescent Anxiety: A Meta-Analytic Review." Prevention Science 12(3):255-68. Juvenile Justice Prevention of Child and Adolescent Anxiety
Fisher, Herrick, Frances Gardner, and Paul Montgomery. 2008. "Cognitive‐Behavioural Interventions for Preventing Youth Gang Involvement for Children and Young People (7‐16)." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2008:7. Juvenile Justice Cognitive Behavioral Interventions to Prevent Gang Involvement
Fossum, Sturla, Bjørn Helge Handegård, Frode Adolfsen, Svein Arild Vis, and Rolf Wynn. 2016. "A Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Outpatient Treatment Effects for Children and Adolescents with Conduct Problems." Journal of Child and Family Studies 25:15-29. Juvenile Justice Long-Term Outpatient Treatment for Children and Adolescents with Conduct Problems
Franklin, Cynthia, Johnny S. Kim, and Stephen J. Tripodi. 2009. "A Meta-Analysis of Published School Social Work Practice Studies 1980-2007." Research on Social Work Practice 19(6): 667-77. Juvenile Justice School Social Work Practices
French, Sheila A., and Paul Gendreau. 2006. "Reducing Prison Misconducts: What Works!" Criminal Justice and Behavior 33(2): 185-218. Corrections Prison Misconduct Programs
Gallagher, Catherine A., David B. Wilson, M. A. Paul Hirschfield, Mark B. Coggeshall, and Doris L. MacKenzie. 1999. "Quantitative Review of the Effects of Sex Offender Treatment on Sexual Reoffendering." Corrections Management Quarterly 3(4):11. Corrections Treatment for Sex Offenders
Gayes, Laurie A. 2013. “A Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Pediatric Health Behavior Change.” Master’s thesis. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas. Gayes, Laurie A., and Ric G. Steele. 2014. ""A Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Pediatric Health Behavior Change."" Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 82(3):521. Juvenile Justice Motivational Interviewing for Pediatric Health
Gendreau, Paul, Shelley J. Listwan, Joseph B. Kuhns, and M. Lyn Exum. 2014. "Making Prisoners Accountable: Are Contingency Management Programs the Answer?" Criminal Justice and Behavior 41(9):1079-1102. Drug & Substance Abuse Contingency Management Programs for Prisoners
Gensheimer, Leah K., Jeffrey P. Mayer, Rand Gottschalk, and William S. Davidson II. 1986. "Diverting Youth from the Juvenile Justice System: A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Efficacy." In S.J. Apter and A.P. Goldstein (eds.). Youth Violence: Programs and Prospects, p. 39-57. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press. Juvenile Justice Juvenile Diversion
Gillies, Donna, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien, and Natalie D'Abrew. 2013. "Psychological Therapies for the Treatment of Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents (Review)." Evidence‐Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal 8(3):1004-16. Victims & Victimization Psychological Therapies for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Gini, Gianluca, and Tiziana Pozzoli. 2009. "Association Between Bullying and Psychosomatic Problems: A Meta-Analysis." Pediatrics 123(3):1059-65. Juvenile Justice Bullying and Psychosomatic Problems
Goss, Cynthia W., Lisa D. Van Bramer, Jeffrey A. Gliner, Todd R. Porter, Ian G. Roberts, and Carolyn DiGuiseppi. 2008. "Increased Police Patrols for Preventing Alcohol-Impaired Driving." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD005242. Law Enforcement Police Patrols for Preventing Alcohol-Impaired Driving
Grenard, Jerry L., Susan L. Ames, Mary Ann Pentz, and Steve Sussman. 2006. "Motivational Interviewing with Adolescents and Young Adults for Drug-Related Problems." International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 18(1):53-68. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use
Grove, Allen B., Steven W. Evans, Dena A. Pastor, and Samantha D. Mack. 2008. "A Meta-Analytic Examination of Follow-Up Studies ff Programs Designed to Prevent the Primary Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders." Aggression and Violent Behavior 13(3):169-84. Juvenile Justice Programs to Prevent Primary Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders
Guterman, Neil B. 1999. "Enrollment Strategies in Early Home Visitation to Prevent Physical Child Abuse and Neglect and the "Universal Versus Targeted" Debate: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based and Screening-Based Programs." Child Abuse & Neglect 23:863-90. Victims & Victimization Enrollment Strategies in Early Home Visitation to Prevent Physical Child Abuse and Neglect
Harnett, Paul H., and Sharon Dawe. 2012. "The Contribution of Mindfulness‐Based Therapies for Children and Families and Proposed Conceptual Integration." Child and Adolescent Mental Health 17(4):195-208. Juvenile Justice Mindfulness-Based Therapies for Children and Families
Hartung, Daniel M., Dennis McCarty, Rongwei Fu, Katharina Wiest, Mady Chalk, and David R. Gastfriend. 2014. "Extended-Release Naltrexone for Alcohol and Opioid Dependence: A Meta-Analysis of Healthcare Utilization Studies." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 47:113-121. Drug & Substance Abuse Extended-Release Naltrexone for Alcohol and Opioid Dependence
Helmus, Leslie, R. Karl Hanson, David Thornton, Kelly M. Babchishin, and Andrew J.R. Harris. 2012. "Absolute Recidivism Rates Predicted by Static-99R and Static-2002R Sex Offenders Risk Assessment Tools Vary Across Samples: A Meta-Analysis." Criminal Justice and Behavior 39(9):1148-71. Corrections Sex Offender Risk Assessment Tool
Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D., Amy M. Brausch, and Brad S. Montgomery. 2007. "A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Therapy Modality Outcomes for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: An Exploratory Study." Child Abuse & Neglect 31(2):125-41. Victims & Victimization Therapy Modalities for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents
Higginson, Angela, Kathryn Benier, Yulia Shenderovich, Laura Bedford, Lorraine Mazerolle, and Joseph Murray. 2015. “Preventive Interventions to Reduce Youth Involvement in Gangs and Gang Crime in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.” Campell Systematic Reviews 2015:18. Juvenile Justice Preventive Interventions to Reduce Youth Involvement in Gangs (in Low- and Middle-Income Countries)
Holloway, Katy R., Trevor H. Bennett, and David P. Farrington. 2006. "The Effectiveness of Drug Treatment Programs in Reducing Criminal Behavior." Psicothema 18:620-629. Corrections Drug Treatment Programs
Holt, Melissa K., Alana M. Vivolo-Kantor, Joshua R. Polanin, Kristin M. Holland, Sarah DeGue, Jennifer L. Matjasko, Misty Wolfe, and Gerald Reid. 2015. "Bullying and Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis." Pediatrics 135(2):e496-509. Juvenile Justice Bullying and Suicidal Ideation
Jensen, Chad D., Christopher C. Cushing, Brandon S. Aylward, James T. Craig, Danielle M. Sorell, and Ric G. Steele. 2011. "Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Behavior Change: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79(4):433. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use
Jiménez-Barbero, José Antonio, José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández, Laura Llor-Zaragoza, María Pérez-García, and Bartolomé Llor-Esteban. 2016. "Effectiveness of Anti-Bullying School Programs: A Meta-Analysis." Children and Youth Services Review 61:165-75. Juvenile Justice Anti-Bullying School Programs
Jolliffe, Darrick, and David P. Farrington. 2007. A Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Impact of Mentoring on Re-Offending: A Summary. London, England: Home Office. Juvenile Justice Mentoring
Kim, Johnny S. 2008. "Examining the Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Meta-Analysis." Research on Social Work Practice 18:107-116. Juvenile Justice Solution-Focused Brief Therapy
Knerr, Wendy, Frances Gardner, and Lucie Cluver. 2013. "Improving Positive Parenting Skills and Reducing Harsh and Abusive Parenting in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review." Prevention Science 14(4):352-63. Juvenile Justice Improving Positive Parenting Skills (in Low- and Middle-Income Countries)
Koper, Christopher S., Evan Mayo-Wilson, and John Smith. 2012. "Police Strategies to Reduce Illegal Possession and Carrying of Firearms: Effects." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012:11. Law Enforcement Police Strategies to Reduce Illegal Possession and Carrying of Firearms
Ksobiech, Kate. 2003. "A Meta-Analysis of Needle Sharing, Lending, and Borrowing Behaviors of Needle Exchange Program Attenders." AIDS Education and Prevention 15(3):257-68. Drug & Substance Abuse Needle Exchange Programs
Landenberger, Nana A., and Mark W. Lipsey. 2005. "The Positive Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Programs for Offenders: A Meta-Analysis of Factors Associated with Effective Treatment." Journal of Experimental Criminology 1:451-76. Corrections Cognitive-Behavioral Programs for Offenders
Långström, Niklas, Pia Enebrink, Eva-Marie Laurén, Jonas Lindblom, Sophie Werkö, and R. Karl Hanson. 2013. "Preventing Sexual Abusers of Children from Reoffending: A Systematic Review of Medical and Psychological Interventions." BMJ 347:f4630. Corrections Medical and Psychological Intervention for Sexual Abusers of Children
Latimer, Jeff, Craig Dowden, and Danielle Muise. 2005. "The Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis." The Prison Journal 85(2):127-44. Victims & Victimization Restorative Justice Practices
Leonard, Liam, and Paula Kenny. 2010. "Measuring the Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices in the Republic of Ireland Through a Meta-Analysis of Functionalist Exchange." The Prison Journal 91(1):57-80. Victims & Victimization Restorative Justice Practices in Republic of Ireland
Lipsey, Mark W. 2009. "The Primary Factors that Characterize Effective Interventions with Juvenile Offenders: A Meta-Analytic Overview." Victims and Offenders 4:124-47. Juvenile Justice Interventions with Juvenile Offenders
Lipsey, Mark W., and Francis T. Cullen. 2007. "The Effectiveness of Correctional Rehabilitation: A Review of Systematic Reviews." Annual Review Law Social Science 3:297-320. Corrections Correctional Rehabilitation
Lowenkamp, Christopher T., Alexander M. Holsinger, and Edward J. Latessa. 2005. "Are Drug Courts Effective: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Communication Corrections:5-11. Courts Drug Courts
Lubans, David R., Ron C. Plotnikoff, and Nicole J. Lubans. 2012. "Review: A Systematic Review of the Impact of Physical Activity Programmes on Social and Emotional Well‐Being in At‐Risk Youth." Child and Adolescent Mental Health 17(1):2-13. Juvenile Justice Physical Activities Programs for At-Risk Youth
Lundahl, Brad W., Chelsea Kunz, Cynthia Brownell, Derrik Tollefson, and Brian L. Burke. 2010. "A Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing: Twenty-Five Years of Empirical Studies." Research on Social Work Practice 20(2):137-60. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing
Lussier, Jennifer Plebani, Sarah H. Heil, Joan A. Mongeon, Gary J. Badger, and Stephen T. Higgins. 2006. "A Meta‐Analysis of Voucher‐Based Reinforcement Therapy for Substance Use Disorders." Addiction 101(2):192-203. Drug & Substance Abuse Voucher-Based Reinforcement Therapy for Substance Use
MacMillan, Harriet L., James H. MacMillan, David R. Offord, Lauren Griffith, and Angus MacMillan. 1994. "Primary Prevention of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: A Critical Review. Part I." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 35(5):835-56. Victims & Victimization Primary Prevention of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect
Magill, Molly, and Lara A. Ray. 2009. "Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment With Adult Alcohol and Illicit Drug Users: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials." Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs:516-527. Drug & Substance Abuse Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment with Adult Alcohol and Illicit Drug Users
Magill, Molly, Jacques Gaume, Timothy R. Apodaca, Justin Walthers, Nadine R. Mastroleo, Brian Borsari, and Richard Longabaugh. 2014. "The Technical Hypothesis of Motivational Interviewing: A Meta-Analysis of MI’s Key Causal Model." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 82(6):973. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing
Mason, Michael, Bolanle Ola, Nikola Zaharakis, and Jing Zhang. 2015. "Text Messaging Interventions for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Use: a Meta-Analysis." Prevention Science 16:181-88. Juvenile Justice Text Messaging Interventions for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Use
Matthew, Marissa E. 2012. Preventative Measures Related to Youth Gang Involvement: A Meta-Analysis. Masters' Thesis. Los Angeles, CA: California State University, Northridge. Juvenile Justice Preventative Measures Related to Youth Gang Involvement
McGowan, Angela, Robert Hahn, Akiva Liberman, Alex Crosby, Mindy Fullilove, Robert Johnson, Eve Moscicki, et al. 2007. "Effects on Violence of Laws and Policies Facilitating the Transfer of Juveniles from the Juvenile Justice System to the Adult Justice System." American Journal of Preventative Medicine 32(4S):S7-S28. Juvenile Justice Violence Laws and Policies Facilitating Transfer of Juveniles to Adult Justice System
McPhail, Ian V., Chantal A. Hermann, and Kevin L. Nunes. 2013. "Emotional Congruence with Children and Sexual Offending Against Children: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 81:737-749. Juvenile Justice Emotional Congruence with Children and Sexual Offending Against Children
Meissner, Christian, Allison Redlich, Sujeeta Bhatt, and Susan Brandon. 2012. "Interview and Interrogation Methods and their Effects on Investigative Outcomes." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012:8. Law Enforcement Interview and Interrogation Methods
Memon, Amina, Christian A. Meissner, and Joanne Fraser. 2010. "The Cognitive Interview: A Meta-Analytic Review and Study Space Analysis of the Past 25 Years." Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 16(4):340. Law Enforcement Cognitive Interviews
Mikton, Christopher, Holly Maguire, and Tom Shakespeare. 2014. "A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Interventions to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Persons with Disabilities." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29(17):3207-26. Crine Prevention Interventions to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Persons with Disabilities
Miller, Peter G., Ashlee Curtis, Anders Sønderlund, Andrew Day, and Nic Droste. 2015. "Effectiveness of interventions for Convicted DUI Offenders in Reducing Recidivism: A Systematic Review of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature." The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 41(1):16-29. Corrections Interventions for Convicted DUI Offenders
Minozzi Silvia, Laura Amato, Cristina Bellisario, and Marina Davoli. 2014. "Maintenance Treatments for Opiate-Dependent Adolescents." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD007210. Drug & Substance Abuse Maintenance Treatments for Opiate-Dependent Adolescents
Minozzi, Silvia, Laura Amato, Cristina Bellisario, Marica Ferri, and Marina Davoli. 2013. "Maintenance Agonist Treatments for Opiate-Dependent Pregnant Women." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD006318. Drug & Substance Abuse Maintenance Agonist Treatments for Opiate-Dependent Pregnant Women
Mishna, Faye, Charlene Cook, Michael Saini, Meng-Jia Wu, and Robert MacFadden. 2009. ""Interventions for Children, Youth, and Parents to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse."" Campbell Systematic Reviews 2009:2. Mishna, Faye Charlene Cook, Michael Saini, Meng-Jia Wu, and Robert MacFadden. 2011. ""Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse of Youth: A Systematic Review."" Research on Social Work Practice 21(1):5-14. Juvenile Justice Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse of Youth
Murray, Joseph, David P. Farrington, Ivana Sekol, and Rikke F. Olsen. 2009. "Effects of Parental Imprisonment on Child Antisocial Behaviour and Mental Health: A Systematic Review." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2009:4. Juvenile Justice Effects of Parental Imprisonment
Niccols, Alison, Karen Milligan, Ainsley Smith, Wendy Sword, Lehana Thabane, and Joanna Henderson. 2012. ""Integrated Programs for Mothers with Substance Abuse Issues and Their Children: A Systematic Review of Studies Reporting on Child Outcomes."" Child Abuse & Neglect 36(4):308-322. Niccols, Alison, Karen Milligan, Wendy Sword, Lehana Thabane, Joanna Henderson, and Ainsley Smith. 2012. ""Integrated Programs for Mothers with Substance Abuse Issues: A Systematic Review of Studies Reporting on Parenting Outcomes."" Harm Reduction Journal 9(1):308-22. Drug & Substance Abuse Integrated Programs for Mothers with Substance Abuse Issues
Olver, Mark E., Keira C. Stockdale, and J. Stephen Wormith. 2009. "Risk Assessment with Young Offenders: A Meta-Analysis of Three Assessment Measures." Criminal Justice and Behavior 36 (4):329-53. Juvenile Justice Juvenile Risk Assessment Tools
Olver, Mark E., Keira C. Stockdale, and J. Stephen Wormith. 2011. "A Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Offender Treatment Attrition and its Relationship to Recidivism." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79:6-21. Corrections Predictors of Offender Treatment Attrition
Oosterman, Mirjam, Carlo Schuengel, N. Wim Slot, Ruud A.R. Bullens, and Theo A.H. Doreleijers. 2007. "Disruptions in Foster Care: A Review and Meta-Analysis." Children and Youth Services Review 29(1):53-76. Victims & Victimization Disruption in Foster Care
Orwin, R., Leilani Francisco, and Tiffiny Bernichon. 2001. "Effectiveness of Women's Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: A Meta-Analysis." Fairfax, Va.: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Drug & Substance Abuse Substance Abuse Treatment for Women
Parker, Ben, and William Turner. 2013. "Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents Who Have Been Sexually Abused: A Systematic Review." Research on Social Work Practice 24(4):389-99. Victims & Victimization Primary Prevention of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect
Patnode, Carrie D., Elizabeth O’Connor, Maya Rowland, Brittany U. Burda, Leslie A. Perdue, and Evelyn P. Whitlock. 2014. "Primary Care Behavioral Interventions to Prevent or Reduce Illicit Drug Use and Nonmedical Pharmaceutical Use in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Evidence Review for The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force." Annals of Internal Medicine 160(9):612-20. Juvenile Justice Primary Care Behavioral Interventions to Prevent or Reduce Illicit Drug and Nonmedical Pharmaceutical Use in Children and Adolescents
Patterson, George, Irene Chung, and Philip G. Swan. 2012. "The Effects of Stress Management Interventions Among Police Officers and Recruits." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012:7. Law Enforcement Stress Management Interventions for Police Officers and Recruits
Peñalba, Valentina, Hugh McGuire, and Jose R. Leite. 2008. "Psychosocial Interventions for Prevention of Psychological Disorders in Law Enforcement Officers." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD005601. Law Enforcement Psychosocial Interventions for Prevention of Psychological Disorders in Law Enforcement Officers
Perry, Amanda E., Matthew Neilson, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Julie M. Glanville, Rebecca Woodhouse, Christine Godfrey, and Catherine Hewitt. 2015. "Interventions for Drug-Using Offenders with Co-Occurring Mental Illness." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD010901. Drug & Substance Abuse Interventions for Drug-Using Offenders with Co-Occurring Mental Illness
Perry, Amanda E., Matthew Neilson M, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Julie M. Glanville, Rebecca Woodhouse, Christine Godfrey, and Catherine Hewitt. 2015. "Pharmacological Interventions for Drug-Using Offenders." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD010862. Drug & Substance Abuse Pharmacological Interventions for Drug-Using Offenders
Powers, Mark B., Jacqueline M. Halpern, Michael P. Ferenschak, Seth J. Gillihan, and Edna B. Foa. 2010. "A Meta-Analytic Review of Prolonged Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder." Clinical Psychology Review 30:635–41. Victims & Victimization Prolonged Exposure for PTSD
Prendergast, Michael L., Deborah Podus, Eunice Chang, and Darren Urada. 2002."The Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of Comparison Group Studies." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 67(1):53-72. Drug & Substance Abuse Drug Abuse Treatment
Prendergast, Michael L., Frank S. Pearson, Deborah Podus, Zachary K. Hamilton, and Lisa Greenwell. 2013. "The Andrews' Principle of Risk, Needs, and Responsivity as Applied in Drug Treatment Programs: A Meta-Analysis of Crime and Drug Use Outcomes." Journal of Experimental Criminology 9:275-300. Drug & Substance Abuse Andrews' Principle of Risk, Needs, and Responsivity as Applied in Drug Treatment Programs
Reeker, Julie, David Ensing, and Robert Elliott. 1997. "A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Group Treatment Outcomes for Sexually Abused Children." Child Abuse & Neglect 21(7):669-80. Victims & Victimization Group Treatment for Sexually Abused Children
Renzema, Marc, and Evan Mayo-Wilson. 2005. "Can Electronic Monitoring Reduce Crime for Moderate to High-Risk Offenders?" Journal of Experimental Criminology 1:215-37. Corrections Electronic Monitoring
Rigby, Ken. 2002. A Meta-Evaluation of Methods and Approaches to Reducing Bullying in Pre-Schools and Early Primary School in Australia. Canberra, Australia: Attorney-General's Department. Juvenile Justice Antibullying Programs (Pre-schools and Early Primary Schools in Australia)
Riosa, Priscilla Burnham, Brae Anne McArthur, and Michèle Preyde. 2011. "Effectiveness of Psychosocial Intervention for Children and Adolescents with Comorbid Problems: A Systematic Review." Child and Adolescent Mental Health 16(4):177-85. Juvenile Justice Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Comorbid Problems
Rispens, Jan, Andre Aleman, and Paul P. Goudena. 1997. "Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta-Analysis of School Programs." Child Abuse & Neglect 21(10):975-87. Victims & Victimization School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Victimization Programs
Roberts, Albert R., and George S. Everly Jr. 2006. "A Meta-Analysis of 36 Crisis Intervention Studies." Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 6(1):10-21. Victims & Victimization Family Crisis Intervention Programs
Ross, Joy, Ethel Quayle, Emily Newman, and Louis Tansey. 2013. "The Impact of Psychological Therapies on Violent Behaviour in Clinical and Forensic Settings: A Systematic Review." Violent Behavior 18(6):761-73. Corrections Psychological Therapies for Violent Behavior
Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali, Joseph A. Simonetti, and Frederick P. Rivara. 2016. "Effectiveness of Interventions to Promote Safe Firearm Storage." Epidemiologic Reviews 38(1):111-24. Crine Prevention Safe Firearm Storage
Rubak, Sune, Annelli Sandbæk, Torsten Lauritzen, and Bo Christensen. 2005. "Motivational Interviewing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." British Journal of General Practice 55(513):305-12. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing
Sacks, Stanley, Karen McKendrick, JoAnn Y. Sacks, and Charles M. Cleland. 2010. "Modified Therapeutic Community for Co-Occurring Disorders: Single Investigator Meta Analysis." Substance Abuse 31(3):146-61. Corrections Modified Therapeutic Community for Co-Occurring Disorders
Sander, Janay B., Erika A. Patall, Laura A. Amoscato, Alexandra L. Fisher, and Catherine Funk. 2012. “A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Juvenile Delinquency Intervention on Academic Outcomes.” Children and Youth Services Review 34:1695–1708. Juvenile Justice Effect of Juvenile Delinquency Intervention on Academic Outcomes
Sankofa, jub, Alexandra Cox, Jamie J. Fader, Michelle Inderbitzin, Laura S. Abrams, and Anne M. Nurse. 2018. "Juvenile Corrections in the Era of Reform: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 62(7):1763–86. Juvenile Justice Juvenile Corrections in the Era of Reform
Scher, Lauren, Rebecca A. Maynard, and Matthew Stagner. 2006. "Interventions Intended to Reduce Pregnancy-Related Outcomes Among Adolescents: A Systematic Review." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2006:12. Juvenile Justice Interventions to Reduce Pregnancy in Adolescents
Schmit, Ericka L., Michael K. Schmit, and A. Stephen Lenz. 2016. "Meta-Analysis of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy for Treating Symptoms of Internalizing Disorders." Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation 7(1):21-39. Victims & Victimization Solution-Focused Brief Therapy for Treating Symptoms of Internalizing Disorders
Schwalbe, Craig S. 2007. "Risk Assessment for Juvenile Justice: A Meta-Analysis." Law and Human Behavior 31(5):449-62. Juvenile Justice Juvenile Risk Assessment Tools
Seidler, Guenter H., and Frank Wagner. 2006. "Comparing the Efficacy of EMDR and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of PTSD: A Meta-Analytic Study." Psychological Medicine 36:1515–22. Victims & Victimization Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Trauma Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treatment for PTSD
Seto, Michael C., and Martin L. Laumiere. 2010. "What is so Special About Male Adolescent Sexual Offending? A Review and Test of Explanations Through Meta-Analysis." Psychological Bulletin 136(4):526-75. Juvenile Justice Male Adolescent Sexual Offending
Sherman, Jeffrey J. 1998. "Effects of Psychotherapeutic Treatments for PTSD: A Meta‐Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials." Journal of Traumatic Stress 11(3):413-35. Victims & Victimization Psychotherapeutic Treatments for PTSD
Sherman, Lawrence W., Heather Strang, Caroline Angel, Daniel Woods, Geoffrey C. Barnes, Sarah Bennett, and Nova Inkpen. 2005. "Effects of Face-to-Face Restorative Justice on Victims of Crime in Four Randomized, Controlled Trials." Journal of Experimental Criminology 1(3):367-95. Victims & Victimization Restorative Justice for Victims of Crime in Four Randomized Controlled Trials
Skowron, Elizabeth, and Dawn HS Reinemann. 2005. "Effectiveness of Psychological Interventions for Child Maltreatment: A Meta-Analysis." Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 42:52-71. Victims & Victimization Psychological Interventions for Child Maltreatment
Smith, J. David, Barry H. Schneider, Peter K. Smith, and Katerina Ananiadou. 2004. "The Effectiveness of Whole-School Antibullying Programs: A Synthesis of Evaluation Research." School Psychology Review 33(4):547. Juvenile Justice Antibullying Programs (Whole-School)
St. Amand, Annick, David E. Bard, and Jane F. Silovsky. 2008. "Meta-Analysis of Treatment for Child Sexual Behavior Problems: Practice Elements and Outcomes." Child Maltreatment 13(2):145-66. Victims & Victimization Treatment for Child Sexual Behavior Problems
Stein, David M., Scott Deberard, and Kendra Homan. 2013. "Predicting Success and Failure in Juvenile Drug Treatment Court: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 44(2):159-68. Drug & Substance Abuse Juvenile Drug Treatment Courts
Strang, Heather, Lawrence W. Sherman, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Daniel Woods, Barak Ariel, and Heather Strang. 2013. ""Restorative Justice Conferencing (RJC) Using Face-to-Face Meetings of Offenders and Victims: Effects on Offender Recidivism and Victim Satisfaction. A Systematic Review."" Campbell Systematic Reviews 2013:12. Sherman, Lawrence W., Heather Strang, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Daniel J. Woods, and Barak Ariel. 2015. ""Are Restorative Justice Conferences Effective in Reducing Repeat Offending? Findings from a Campbell Systematic Review."" Journal of Quantitative Criminology 21:1-24. Corrections Restorative Justice Conferencing Using Face-to-Face Meetings of Offenders and Victims
Terplan, Mishka, Shaalini Ramanadhan, Abigail Locke, Nyaradzo Longinaker, and Steve Lui. 2015. "Psychosocial Interventions for Pregnant Women in Outpatient Illicit Drug Treatment Programs Compared to Other Interventions." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006037. Drug & Substance Abuse Psychosocial Interventions for Pregnant Women in Outpatient Illicit Drug Treatment Programs
Van der Laan, Peter H., Monika Smit, Inge Busschers,and Pauline Aarten. 2011. “Cross-Border Trafficking in Human Beings: Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Reducing Sexual Exploitation.” Campbell Systematic Reviews 2011:9. Victims & Victimization Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Reducing Sexual Exploitation
van der Put, Claudia E., Mark Assink, and Noëlle F. Boekhout van Solinge. 2017. "Predicting Child Maltreatment: A Meta-Analysis of the Predictive Validity of Risk Assessment Instruments." Child Abuse & Neglect 73:71–88. Juvenile Justice Predictive Validity of Risk Assessment Instruments for Child Maltreatment
Villettaz, Patrice, Martin Killias, and Isabel Zoder. 2006. "The Effects of Custodial vs. Non-Custodial Sentences on Reoffending: A Systematic Review of the State of Knowledge." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2006:13. Courts Custodial vs. Non-Custodial Sentences
Walker, Donald F., Shannon K. McGovern, Evelyn L. Poey, and Kathryn E. Otis. 2004. "Treatment Effectiveness for Male Adolescent Sexual Offenders: A Meta-Analysis and Review." Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 13(3-4):281-93. Juvenile Justice Treatment for Adolescent Male Sex Offenders
Walters, Glenn D. 2012. "Criminal Thinking And Recidivism: Meta-Analytic Evidence on the Predictive and Incremental Validity of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles." Aggression and Violent Behavior 17:272-78. Corrections Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles
Warmbold-Brann, Kristy, Matthew K. Burns, June L. Preast, Crystal N. Taylor, and Lisa N. Aguilar. 2017. "Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Academic Interventions and Modifications on Student Behavior Outcomes." School Psychology Quarterly 32(3):291–305. Juvenile Justice Effects of Academic Interventions and Modifications on Student Behavior
Welsh, Brandon C., Anthony A. Braga, and Meghan E. Hollis-Peel. 2012. "Can “Disciplined Passion” Overcome the Cynical View? An Empirical Inquiry of Evaluator Influence on Police Crime Prevention Program Outcomes." Journal of Experimental Criminology 8(4):415-31. Law Enforcement Evaluator Influence on Police Crime Prevention Programs
Welsh, Brandon C., Meghan E. Peel, David P. Farrington, Henk Elffers, and Anthony A. Braga. 2011. "Research Design Influence on Study Outcomes in Crime And Justice: A Partial Replication with Public Area Surveillance." Journal of Experimental Criminology 7(2): 183-98. Crine Prevention Research Design Influence on Public Area Surveillance
Werb, Dan, Edward J. Mills, Kora DeBeck, Thomas Kerr, Julio S.G. Montaner, and Evan Wood. 2011. "The Effectiveness of Anti-Illicit-Drug Public-Service Announcements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 65(10):834-40 Drug & Substance Abuse Anti-Illicit-Drug Public Service Announcements
Williams-Hayes, Mona Marie. 2002. The Effectiveness of Victim-Offender Mediation and Family Group Conferencing: A Meta-Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Victims & Victimization Victim-Offender Mediation and Family Group Conferencing Programs
Willis, Charlene, Sean Lybrand, and Nicholas Bellamy. 2004. "Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programmes for Reducing Drink Driving Recidivism." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3, Art. No.: CD004168. Drug & Substance Abuse Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programs
Wilson, David B., David McClure, and David Weisburd. 2010. ""Does Forensic DNA Help to Solve Crime? The Benefit of Sophisticated Answers to Naive Questions."" Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 26(4):458-469. Wilson, David B., David Weisburd, and David McClure. 2011. “Use of DNA Testing in Police Investigative Work for Increasing Offender Identification, Arrest, Conviction and Case Clearance.” Campbell Systematic Reviews 2011:7. Law Enforcement Use of Forensic DNA Evidence to Solve Crime
Wilson, David B., Leana Allen Bouffard, and Doris L. MacKenzie. 2005. "A Quantitative Review of Structured, Group-Oriented, Cognitive-Behavioral Programs for Offenders." Criminal Justice and Behavior 32(2):172-204. Corrections Structured, Group-Oriented, Cognitive-Behavioral Programs
Wilson, Holly A., and Leticia Gutierrez. 2014. “Does One Size Fit All? A Meta-Analysis Examining the Predictive Ability of the Level of Service Inventory (LSI) With Aboriginal Offenders.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 41(2):196-219. Corrections Level of Service Inventory (LSI) with Aboriginal Offenders
Wilson, Ingrid M., Kathryn Graham, and Angela Taft. 2014. "Alcohol Interventions, Alcohol Policy and Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review." BMC Public Health 14(1):1. Drug & Substance Abuse Alcohol Interventions and Intimate Partner Violence
Wilson, Sandra Jo, Mark W. Lipsey, and Haluk Soydan. 2003. "Are Mainstream Programs for Juvenile Delinquency Less Effective with Minority Youth Than Majority Youth? A Meta-Analysis of Outcomes Research." Research on Social Work Practice 13:3-26. Juvenile Justice Mainstream Programs for Juvenile Delinquency
Yang, Bijou, and David Lester. 2008. "The Deterrent Effect of Executions: A Meta-Analysis Thirty Years After Ehrlich." Journal of Criminal Justice 36(5):453-60. Crine Prevention Deterrent Effect of Executions
Yang, Min, Stephen C.P. Wong, and Jeremy Coid. 2010. "The Efficacy of Violence Prediction: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Nine Risk Assessment Tools." Psychological Bulletin 136(5):740-67. Corrections Violence Risk Assessment Tools
Zeoli, April M., Rebecca Malinski, and Brandon Turchan. 2016. "Risks and Targeted Interventions: Firearms in Intimate Partner Violence." Epidemiologic Reviews 38(1):125-39. Victims & Victimization Targeted Interventions for Firearms in Intimate Partner Violence

 

Why Meta-Analyses Are Screened Out

A meta-analysis is screened out if it does not meet all of the criteria described below.

  1. Intervention: The meta-analysis must include at least two program evaluations of the practice of interest.
  2. Aggregation: The meta-analysis must report an aggregate effect size. That is, the meta-analysis must aggregate or average the effects of at least two studies into a single estimate of the effectiveness of the treatment.
  3. Primary aim: The intervention that is the subject of the meta-analysis must focus on at least one of the following. The program or practice must:
    • Aim to prevent or reduce crime or delinquency, overt problem behaviors (such as aggression or gang involvement), or important risk factors for crime or delinquency (such as school failure);
    • Aim to prevent, intervene, or respond to victimization;
    • Aim to improve justice systems or processes; and/or
    • Target an offender population or an at-risk population (that is, individuals who have the potential to become involved in the justice system).
  4. Literature search: The meta-analysis must be based on a comprehensive and systematic search of the literature. To meet this criterion at least minimally, the search must include both of the following components:
    • At least two sources for identifying potentially eligible research must be used. Sources include, for example, different electronic bibliographies, Google type internet searches, hand searches of journals, contacting relevant researchers in the field, and reviewing the references in pertinent studies and prior reviews.
    • There is some indication that unpublished or “grey” literature was sought during the search, whether or not any unpublished research reports eventually met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Unpublished and grey literature are defined here as literature that is not controlled by commercial publishers, including for example, conference presentations, government and non-governmental agency technical reports, and theses/dissertations. Meta-analyses that explicitly state that only published or peer-reviewed research was included are ineligible. Meta-analyses that explicitly or actively excluded unpublished or non-peer-reviewed research are ineligible.
  5. Primary outcomes: The meta-analysis must report results on at least one eligible outcome, defined by CrimeSolutions to include:
    • Crime, delinquency, or overt problem behaviors (including aggression, gang involvement, or substance use), which may be presented as individual behaviors, community-level behaviors, crime rates, etc.;
    • Victimization;
    • Justice system practices or policies; or,
    • Risk factors for crime and delinquency, including school failure, psychological problems or mental illness, etc.

      Eligible outcomes must fall completely within one of the single construct categories listed below and cannot be combinations of constructs across more than one category. That is, constructs that are combinations of education and mental health outcomes would not be eligible unless the education and mental health outcomes were also reported separately.
  6. Control groups: The studies included in the meta-analysis must have appropriate control groups. Specifically, one of the following two conditions must be met:
    • An appropriate counterfactual condition is required for all included studies in a meta-analysis, or
    • In meta-analyses that include studies without control groups, results for controlled studies are reported separately from those of uncontrolled studies.
  7. Reporting of results: The meta-analysis must report a common quantitative index of results that represents the magnitude of the treatment effect (i.e., effect sizes) across included studies.
  8. Combining relationships: If the meta-analysis reports an average mean effect size calculation (for all studies or for subgroups of studies), only effect sizes in the same metric and measuring the same type of relationship are averaged together. This criterion has to do with the kinds of relationships and effect sizes that are combined rather than the types of programs that are combined. A meta-analysis that includes a diverse group of programs would not necessarily be problematic here. However, a meta-analysis that combined standardized mean difference effect sizes for treatment versus control comparisons with pretest-posttest change effect sizes would be ineligible unless the different effect size means were reported separately.
  9. Publication date: At least 50% of the studies included in the meta-analysis must be published or available on or after 1980.
  10. Age of samples: All of the studies included in the meta-analysis must involve offender participants that are either all juvenile or all adult. If the meta-analysis includes studies that involve both juveniles and adults, mean effect sizes must be reported separately for the juvenile and adult studies. Meta-analyses that include studies that themselves combine juveniles and adults in the same programs without providing any options for splitting the juvenile and adult samples would not be eligible. The age criterion does not apply for: (1) meta-analyses of practices or procedures that focus on areas, hot spots, surveillance, and the like, which do not typically involve identifiable offenders; or for (2) victim interventions.

Return to text.

Date Created: August 10, 2020